Getting Started


Currently, SMOL is best installed from source.

SMOL needs a Java JDK (version 11 or later) to be installed. The smol source code can be checked out via:

git clone

or by downloading and unpacking the zip archive from

After obtaining the source code, change into that directory and execute the command:

./gradlew assemble

After a successful build, the SMOL REPL can be started in that directory via:

java -jar build/libs/smol.jar

Editor Support

There is basic support for SMOL for the following editors:

Running a Simple SMOL Program

SMOL itself is started from the command line and is typically used via an interactive prompt (a.k.a. REPL).

Here is a SMOL program that prints the canonical message:

  print("Hello world!");

To run this code, save it in a file hello-world.smol, and run it from the REPL:

MO> read hello-world.smol
MO> auto
"Hello world!"

Instead of separate read and auto commands, you can also use reada; see The SMOL interactive REPL for a full list of commands.

Here is a more involved example, involving classes and breakpoints:

class Hello(String message)
 Unit say_hello()

  print("Creating class ...");
  Hello hello = new Hello("Hello world!");

Since the program will stop execution at the breakpoint, the runtime state can be queried from the REPL:

MO> reada /Users/rudi/Source/tmp/hello-world.smol
"Creating class ..."
MO> query SELECT ?obj ?message WHERE { ?obj a prog:Hello. ?obj prog:Hello_message ?message. }
| obj                                                               | message        |
| <> | "Hello world!" |
MO> auto
"Hello world!"

Runtime state is queried using the SPARQL query language, both from the REPL and in the program.

SMOL Command-Line Parameters

  -e, -l, --execute, --load
  -j, --jenaReasoner TEXT    Set value of the internally used reasoner to
                             'off', 'rdfs', or 'owl' (default -> 'owl')
  -s, --sparqlEndpoint TEXT  url for SPARQL endpoint
  -b, --back PATH            path to a file containing OWL class definitions
                             as background knowledge.
  -d, --domain TEXT          prefix for domain:.
  -i, --input PATH           path to a .smol file which is loaded on startup.
  -r, --replay PATH          path to a file containing a series of REPL
  -o, --outdir PATH          path to a directory used to create data files.
  -v, --verbose              Verbose output.
  -m, --materialize          Materialize triples and dump to file.
  -q, --useQueryType         Activates the type checker for access
  -p, --prefixes VALUE       Extra prefixes, given as a list -p PREFIX1=URI1
                             -p PREFIX2=URI2
  -h, --help                 Show this message and exit

The SMOL interactive REPL

SMOL programs are run and queried via the REPL. Currently, the REPL offers the following commands:

General Commands





exits the REPL

verbose enabled

Sets verbose output to on or off

enabled: true or false

outdir path

Sets or prints the directory where SMOL write data files

path: a directory name; if omitted, print the current value

Commands for Running SMOL




read file

reads a SMOL file

file: Path to the .smol file

reada file

reads and runs the given file

file: Path to the .smol file


starts or continues execution of the currently-loaded smol file until the next breakpoint


executes the next statement

Commands for Querying SMOL




eval expression

evaluates a smol expression in the current program state

expression: a smol expression

query query

executes a SPARQL query in the current program state

query: The SPARQL query to execute

source source enabled

Set which sources to include (true) or exclude (false) when querying

  • source: heap or staticTable or vocabularyFile or externalOntology

  • enabled: true or false

reasoner reasoner

Specify which Jena reasoner to use, or turn it off

reasoner: off or rdfs or owl

class class

List all members of a class

class: class expression in Manchester Syntax, e.g., <smol:Class>

plot role port from to

Plots data from the given output port of an FMO in the given interval. In order to use this command, gnuplot must be installed.

  • role: The FMO to plot data from, as named by its role field.

  • port: The output port of the FMO to be plotted

  • from: (optional) the starting time of the plot

  • to: (optional) the end time of the plot

dump file

Create file in outdir containing the current heap state in TRTL format

file (optional): the file to create; default output.ttl

Diagnostic Commands





Print all classes and check that the internal ontology is consistent


Print static information in internal format


Print state in internal format

guards guard enabled

Enables/disables guard clauses when searching for triples in the heap or the static table. This command is mainly used for debugging and performance measuring.

  • guard: heap or staticTable

  • enabled: true or false

virtual guard enabled

Enables/disables virtualization searching for triples in the heap or the static table. This command is mainly used for debugging and performance measuring.

  • guard: heap or staticTable

  • enabled: true or false